The Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw®
Life Extension NewsTM
Volume 13 No. 2 • April 2010


Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work.
— Thomas Edison (from Dr. Julian Whitaker’s
“Health & Healing”, March 2010)

Yet, Freedom! yet thy banner, torn, but flying,
Streams like the thunder-storm against the wind.
— Lord George Gordon Byron

The pen is mightier than the sword...[...]
only if the sword is very small and the pen is very sharp.
— Terry Pratchett, “The Light Fantastic” (1986)

One night I was sitting with friends at a table in a crowded Key West bar. At a nearby table, there was a mildly drunk woman with a very drunk husband. Presently, the woman approached us and asked me to sign a paper napkin. All this seemed to anger her husband; he staggered over to the table, and after unzipping his trousers and hauling out his equipment, said, “Since you’re autographing things, why don’t you autograph this?” The tables surrounding us had grown silent, so a great many people heard my reply, which was: “I don’t know if I can autograph it, but perhaps I can initial it.”
— Truman Capote

In my many years I have come to a conclusion that one useless man is a shame, two is a law firm and three or more is a congress.
— John Adams

Orange Juice and Obesity, Insulin
Resistance, and Atherosclerosis:

Eating-Induced Inflammation Neutralized by
Concurrent Drinking of Orange Juice

As we have written before, eating a meal, especially one which contains large amounts of calories, fat, and/or carbohydrates, causes the release of inflammatory agents such as ROS (reactive oxygen species), inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-8), master regulator of inflammation NFkappaB,1-2 metalloproteinases, and toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4)1 as well as microbial endotoxins (LPS(1,3,4), lipopolysaccharides). As explained in paper #1, “MNC’s [circulating mononuclear cells] constitute the major cellular group (monocytes and T and B lymphocytes) that participate in intramural atherosclerotic inflammation and are known to be in a proinflammatory state in obese individuals who carry a high risk of atherogenesis and have a chronically elevated food intake. Furthermore, inflammatory factors contribute to interference with insulin signal transduction and insulin resistance.” For instance, a recent paper5 reports that TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2) is critical for diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

A new paper1 reveals in a human study that the MNC’s of subjects who drank orange juice (300 kcal or a little less than 3 cups (110 kcal/cup) of “Not From Concentrate” Florida Orange Juice) along with a 900 kcal high fat, high carbohydrate meal did not experience the meal-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress (such as increased endotoxins and Toll-like receptor expression) that took place in the MNC’s of subjects eating the same meal but along with either 300 kcal of glucose or with water.

The constituents of orange juice responsible for this remarkable protective effect were not determined in this study; however, the authors suggest that the effects are “probably attributable to its flavonoids, naringenin, and hesperidin because they exert a significant ROS [reactive oxygen species] suppressive effect in vitro at concentrations of 50 umol/L. These concentrations are consistent with a flavonoid content of 5-10 mg/100 mL in the consumed orange juice in our studies, assuming a complete absorption from the gut and its distribution in 5.0 L.” Suggestion: Adding 300 kcal (the energy content of the orange juice) to a meal is a lot of additional calories of which the sugar content of orange juice is significant. Yet, it seems very unlikely to us that the sugars could have contributed to the antiinflammatory effect of the juice. Hence, a reduced sugar content orange juice containing the same amount of orange juice constituents as the full-sugar variety should be as effective. Also, note that in this study, the subjects were three groups of healthy, normal weight men and women with BMI of 20-25 and aged 20-40 years. The effect of the sugars in orange juice might not be as benign in, say, obese type 2 diabetics; therefore, such individuals should test their blood sugar changes if trying the orange juice therapy.

References

  1. Ghanim et al. Orange juice neutralizes the proinflammatory effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal and prevents endotoxin increase and Toll-like receptor expression. Am J Clin Nutr 91:940-9 (2010).
  2. Aljada et al. Increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappa B and decrease in inhibitor kappaB in mononuclear cells after a mixed meal: evidence for a proinflammatory effect. Am J Clin Nutr 79:682-90 (2004). This study compared markers of inflammation in nine normal weight subjects who ate a 900 kcal mixed meal to that of 8 normal weight subjects who were given 300 ml of water after an overnight fast.
  3. Erridge et al. A high-fat meal induces low-grade endotoxemia: evidence of a novel mechanism of postprandial inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr 86:1286-92 (2007).
  4. Amar et al. Energy intake is associated with endotoxemia in apparently healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 87:1219-23 (2008).
  5. Himes and Smith. Tlr2 is critical for diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a murine model. FASEB J 24:731-9 (2010).

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