Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw’s®
Life Extension NewsTM
Volume 15 No. 8 • December 2012


The trouble with borrowing money from China is that thirty minutes later you feel broke again.
— Steve Bridges (as Barack Obama)

Reality is what doesn’t go away when you stop believing in it.
— Philip K. Dick (1928-1982)

Depend on the rabbit’s foot if you wish, but remember that it didn’t work for the rabbit.
— R. E. Shay

In a country where the sole employer is the State, opposition means death by slow starvation. The old principle: who does not work shall not eat, has been replaced by a new one: who does not obey shall not eat.
— Leon Trotsky (1937)

(D&S: Grim but true. “Sole employer” has the same implications as “single payer” as in government as sole supplier of medical care. He who pays calls the tune. You obey their commands or you don’t get medical treatment from them and, as “sole supplier” nobody else can legally supply you.)

You may think you’re paranoid, but are you paranoid ENOUGH?
— Pat Cadigan, Fool to Believe (1990)

Hydrogen Therapy

Hydrogen-rich Saline Treatment Ameliorates
Stress-associated Gastric Mucosa Damage in Rats

A new report1 demonstrates that hydrogen-rich saline treatment was able to protect rats against restraint-cold-stress-induced gastric ulcers. Restraint-cold-stress caused increased oxidative stress, a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) along with an accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, a lipid peroxidation product), protein carbonyl and 8-OHdG (a product of DNA damage) concentration. The results of the study (treating rats with or without hydrogen-rich saline to prevent the stress-induced gastric ulcers) showed that the hydrogen-rich saline prevented these changes (as listed above).

As the researchers explain, “there is a wealth of evidence to point out that mucosal hypoxia-ischemia is the major cause of cold immobilization stress-induced gastric injury. Under the hypoxic-ischemic condition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals are rapidly and continuously produced, and the resulting oxidative stress is crucially responsible for the development and progression of epithelial necrosis and mucosal ulceration.” Hydroxyl radicals have been identified as a major causative factor in stress-induced gastric ulceration. Interestingly, the authors note that the hydroxyl radical is extremely short-lived at about a billionth part of a second and can only diffuse for approximately 4 nm before reacting. “Therefore, scavenging OH- [hydroxyl radical] has tremendous potential to control stress-induced gastric ulceration.”1

Hydrogen has been discovered to be a selective antioxidant that is particularly effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals. On that basis, the researchers of this study1 decided to test the effectiveness of hydrogen in preventing stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats. [See our article “Hydrogen Therapy” in the June issue of Life Enhancement].

Moreover, the release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and CINC-1) found to be important determinants of mucosal inflammation and gastric injury following cold immobilization stress were linearly increased in rat gastric mucosa at 6 hours after the initiation of stress; these changes were prevented by hydrogen-rich saline.

“Caspase-3, a key mediator for execution of apoptosis [programmed cell death], is involved in apoptotic cell death in stress-induced ulcer. The cold restrained stress resulted in a dramatic activation of caspase-3. In our present study, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was markedly decreased by the treatment of Hs [hydrogen-rich saline].”1

The researchers also showed in this study that hydrogen up-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic genes, Bcl-xl and inhibited the expression of apoptotic genes, Bax, thus providing protection against the death of gastric mucosa cells in response to the cold restrained stress.

This is a very interesting new therapeutic use for hydrogen therapy, which because of the extensive occurrence of stress-induced gastric ulcers, could be of value for many gastric ulcer patients. (Although many ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, these bacteria aren’t the only cause of ulcers.)


  1. Liu et al. The protective of hydrogen on stress-induced gastric ulceration. Int Immunopharmacol (2012) doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2012.04.004 [the authors are located at hospitals in China, hence, the somewhat weird English]

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