The Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw®
Life Extension NewsTM
Volume 19 No. 3 • April 2016


Chocolate created a sensation in Europe during the 1600’s following its introduction by men who had been exploring Middle and South America. Extrapolating from Aztec medicine, chocolate was used in Europe to soothe stomach and intestinal disorders, to control diarrhea in children, to reduce fevers, to induce cough to expel mucus, and “promote strength before military or sexual conquests” (Wilson, 2010), among other things.


Chocolate was promoted as a libido enhancer early on. “In 1652, Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma’s ‘Chocolate; or, An Indian Drink’ promises it [chocolate] ‘Twill make Old Women Young and Fresh...” (Wilson, 2010)


  • ** Walter Freeman. Chocolate craving and the pharmacological implication. Neurophysiology Lab, Freeman Lab, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720. This is apparently a term paper (code 869, categorized as “Neurochemistry”) obtained by fax Sept. 3, 2003 (paper is undated, with limited references; we included this for fun, not as serious scholarship).
  • Canli T, Lesch KP. Long story short: the serotonin transporter in emotion regulation and social cognition. Nat Neurosci. 10(9):1103-9 (2007).
  • Cassiday. A prescription for chocolate. Inform. 23(5):315-6 (2012).
  • Holzer and Izzo. The pharmacology of TRP channels. Br J Pharmacol. 171:2469-73 (2014).
  • Michener W, Rozin P. Pharmacological versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving. Physiol Behav. 56(3):419-22 (1994).
  • Miller. Avenues for the development of therapeutics that target trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). J Med Chem. 55(5):1809-14 (2012).
  • Kamio et al. A single oral dose of flavan-3-ols enhances energy expenditure by sympathetic nerve stimulation in mice. Free Rad Biol Med. 91:256-63 (2016).
  • Williams RJ, Spencer JP. Flavonoids, cognition, and dementia: actions, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic utility for Alzheimer disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 52(1):35-45. (2012)
  • Wilson PK. Centuries of seeking chocolate’s medicinal benefits. Lancet. 376(9736):158-9. (2010).

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