Did You Know,
The Studies Show . . .

CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID MELTS FAT
AND BUILDS MUSCLE

A group of Scandinavian researchers has shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is valuable for melting away fat and enhancing muscle metabolism.1,2 Although no net weight was lost, fat was diminished and muscle mass was increased, even when combined with only light exercise. Additionally, LDL ("bad" cholesterol) levels decreased. In this study, 3.4 grams of CLA daily was used.

1. Blankson H, Stakkestad JA, Fagertun H, Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. J Nutr 2000 Dec;130(12):2943--8.
2. Bee G. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid consumption during pregnancy and lactation influences growth and tissue composition in weaned pigs. J Nutr 2000 Dec;130(12):2981--9.

LOW THYROID IMPAIRS MEMORY BUT IS
REVERSIBLE WITH SUPPLEMENTATION

In a French study, patients with hypothyroidism (low thyroid) showed impaired cognitive function - in attention, motor speed, memory, and visual-spatial organization - compared with normal subjects.3 Additionally, older age was associated with greater cognitive decline. After receiving thyroid supplementation, the hypothyroid subjects had significantly improved cognitive functioning, attaining the values achieved by healthy subjects of the same age. The researchers concluded that cognitive abilities are impaired in hypothyroidism, that the elderly are especially effected, and that cognitive decline is age-related. Hormone replacement therapy with thyroid supplementation can normalize cognitive function.

3. Capet C, Jego A, Denis P, Noel D, Clerc I, Cornier AC, Lefebvre H, Levesque H, Chassagne P, Bercoff E, Doucet J. Is cognitive change related to hypothyroidism reversible with replacement therapy? Rev Med Interne 2000 Aug;21(8):672-8.

LYCOPENE MAY HELP ASTHMA
In an Israeli study, researchers concluded that some patients with exercise-induced asthma can reduce their risk by taking the antioxidant lycopene.4 After being treated for one week with 30 mg per day of lycopene, 55% of the patients showed significant improvement in their exercised-induced asthma when they were exercise-challenged. The control group demonstrated a 15% decrease in lung function after the exercise challenge.

4. Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A. Reduction of exercise-induced asthma oxidative stress by lycopene, a natural antioxidant. Allergy 2000 Dec;55(12):1184--9.

GLUCOSAMINE IMPROVED CHRONIC
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN CHILDREN

Researchers in the United Kingdom concluded that N-acetylglucosamine is a cost-effective, nontoxic treatment for chronic inflammatory bowel disease.5

5. Salvatore S, Heuschkel R, Tomlin S, Davies SE, Edwards S, Walker-Smith JA, French I, Murch SH. A pilot study of N-acetylglucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000 Dec;14(12):1567--79.

T3 SHOULD BE GIVEN WITH T4
The thyroid gland produces about 20% of the total T3 in the body.6 The rest comes from the conversion of T4 to T3. According to a report published in the New England Journal of Medicine, it makes physiological sense to replace both T3 and T4 in hypothyroid patients.7

6. Toft AD. Thyroid hormone replacement - one hormone or two? N Engl J Med 1999 Feb 11;340(6):469--70.
7. Sherman SI, Gopal J, Haugen BR, Chiu AC, Whaley K, Nowlakha P, Duvic M. Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands. N Engl J Med 1999 Apr 8;340(14):1075--9.

LOWER STROKE RISK WITH WHOLE GRAINS
In a report from the Nurses' Health Study, involving over 75,000 female subjects, researchers found that the more whole grains consumed, the lower the risk of ischemic (impaired blood supply) stroke, regardless of risk factors for cardiovascular disease.8

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8. Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rexrode KM, Hu FB, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Whole grain consumption and risk of ischemic stroke in women: a prospective study. JAMA 2000 Sep 27;284(12):1534--40.

OMEGA-3 FISH OILS REDUCE RISK OF HEART
DISEASE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Authors of a report in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that fish-oil concentrate can reduce the risk of heart disease by 27% in postmenopausal women.9

9. Stark KD, Park EJ, Maines VA, Holub BJ. Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Aug;72(2):389--94.

DEPRESSION CONNECTED TO HEART DISEASE
A study involving over 5000 women revealed that depression may be associated with an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Women who were chronically depressed were 73% more likely to develop CHD than those who were not. Similar comparisons in men linked depression to an increased risk of CHD as well as increased mortality.10 (See "Alleviating Anxiety with 5-HTP Is Good for Your Heart.")

10. Ferketich AK, Schwartzbaum JA, Frid DJ, Moeschberger ML. Depression as an antecedent to heart disease among women and men in the NHANES I study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 2000 May 8;160(9):1261--8.

CALCIUM INTAKE AND LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE
A study involving more than 8000 women and over 7500 men reported that increased consumption of calcium from dairy products is associated with significant decreases in blood pressure.11 There was a significant linear decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sexes as dairy calcium intake increased.

11. Jorde R, Bonaa KH. Calcium from dairy products, vitamin D intake, and blood pressure: the Tromso Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jun;71(6):1530--5.

CALCIUM INTAKE AND WEIGHT LOSS
A study reports that women who had the highest intake of calcium from dairy foods lost the most weight and body fat over 2 years, regardless of exercise.12 How calcium affects body weight and fat is not clear. The report indicates that a component of dairy products, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), may be responsible.

12. Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr 2000 Nov--Dec;19(6):754--60.

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